Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Problems with Limiting Freedom of Speech free essay sample

The accompanying report was mentioned in the interest of the Communications division arranged inside and will be directed by . The report will focus on and examine what issues would emerge if the right to speak freely of discourse was restricted. It will be presented by 18/10/2012. 2. Discoveries 2. 1 Who settles on the confinements of the right to speak freely of discourse? The idea of Freedom of discourse is one which is held sovereign by numerous constitutions and people, particularly inside the American states. Limiting an American citizen’s the right to speak freely of discourse would be profoundly hostile and seen as a demonstration just a domineering Government would attempt which, with numerous components considered, is valid. The activities that much of the time are considered by these Governments are; Threats of detainments if the individual demonstrations in a horrible manner, disallowance of ideological groups and fights, likewise a typical constraint attempted inside numerous spots, for example, Korea, is the control of the media and the killing or detainment of Journalists who have partook in media considered hostile to the current Government or acts which are viewed as controlling the brains of the residents of said Country. We will compose a custom paper test on Issues with Limiting Freedom of Speech or on the other hand any comparable point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page It has likewise been seen under Democratic Governments in spots, for example, the UK. Despite the fact that this legislatures principle need are human rights and uniformity they have much of the time constrained ability to speak freely, in spite of the fact that in a more positive light than done by Dictatorial Governments. The restrictions inside this tenet would be, detainment following †despise discourse, making physical or compelling enthusiastic torment another, prejudice or fanaticism. All the above confinements are chosen by an administration, paying little heed to their position on human rights. Yet, in everyday life we are limited by our companions, maybe in school or work. At the point when we think about people convictions, confidence or race the normal individual would fit in with their environmental factors, guaranteeing they don't utter a word or act in a manner as to insult their kindred coworker/understudy or companion. This in itself is confinements on our own ability to speak freely brought about without anyone else, paying little heed to the approaches our Government holds. 2. 2 Example of a nation where the right to speak freely of discourse has been constrained and the ‘Chilling-Effect’ ‘Chilling-Effect’ is a law that encompasses numerous elements inside protected life, yet above all the privilege to Freedom of discourse. The idea of the Chilling impact is that when a law is passed it causes ‘ripples’ inside society. For instance, a previous Dutch MP and pundit of Islamist sees against ladies, Ayaan Hirsi Ali turned into a ‘marked’ lady for practicing her entitlement to the right to speak freely of discourse. As a result of her convictions the Islamic people group have given a ‘fatwa’ (juristic decision gave by an Islamic Scholar) requesting her to be slaughtered. Because of this ‘fatwa’ the neighboring people requested a court hearing for her to be ousted because of her security concerns turning into a ‘nuisance’ and interfering with their every day life. Because of this occasion numerous individuals will mull over remaining on a ‘soap box’ to voice their suppositions encompassing this religion and subject accordingly bringing about a ‘social ripple’, a Chilling-impact. 2. 3 Attempts of constraining ability to speak freely 2. 31 The Cuban Constitution The Cuban constitution is viewed as one of the most limited constitutions on the planet. The main idea of the ability to speak freely (and media) that is held must be submitted to in understanding to the Socialist society. Residents dwelling inside the country are confined to do the most essential undertakings which most people living in a nation with a reasonable strategy on Freedom of discourse would be profoundly stunned by. These incorporate, sending your kids to any strict schools †as all schools inside Cuba are non-strict, voyaging abroad being without Government consent, changing occupations or living arrangement without government authorization, visiting or remaining in vacationer inns, cafés, and resorts is precluded and picking an emergency clinic is likewise restricted, as these are relegated to you by the Government. The opportunity of press inside Cuba is additionally profoundly confined, just like the media material accessible to people, e. g. individuals inside the country must not get to the web except if allowed by the Government †this in itself is uncommon are the administration are in high authority over the web and just 1. 67% of the populace have that ‘luxury’, get any distribution from abroad and if an individual chooses to do so they can be rebuffed under one of the numerous strangely exacting prison terms inside their constitution and they are additionally incapable to tune in to outside radio stations. The outcome in Cuba confining ability to speak freely to such an exclusive requirement is the populace inside detainment facilities are taken off to a possible number, which means less space for the more genuine lawbreakers as the vast majority of the cells are involved by Journalists. 3. End It can be inferred that, by examining the numerous components of the idea of the right to speak freely of discourse, it ought not be constrained. Obviously, it is viewed as that numerous people or political bodies exploit the protected law, but since of the law they are rebuffed as needs be. On the off chance that the right to speak freely of discourse was not restricted in the Islamic culture, Ayaan Hirsi Ali would have had the option to examine her reactions publically and maybe drove the Islamic culture to another stature, but since of the impediments she was nearly executed transforming her ethical contention into a disagreeable, oblivious tirade. Likewise countries, for example, Cuba would have a progressively viable and proficient Government considering the wellbeing and security of the people and increasingly genuine wrongdoings, spending less cash on prison standing on things thought about ‘offensive to their approaches.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Iron Heel Study Guide

The Iron Heel Study Guide The Iron Heelâ is an early tragic novel distributed in 1908 by Jack London. London is most popular for his man-against-nature books like The Call of the Wild and White Fang, so The Iron Heelâ is oftenâ considered a takeoff from his typical output.â The Iron Heelâ is composed from the main individual viewpoint of a female hero, andâ it incorporates aâ presentation of London’s communist political standards, the two of which were uncommon for now is the ideal time. The book tends to Londons conviction that unionized work and communist political developments would meet people's high expectations the customary entrepreneur power base. Later authors, for example, George Orwell regularly expressly notice The Iron Heel as an effect on their own works. Plot The epic starts with a foreword composed by Anthony Meredith in the 419 BOM (Brotherhood of Man), around the 27th century. Meredith talks about the Everhard Manuscript as a recorded report, formed by Avis Everhard and portraying the occasions of 1912 through 1932. Meredith cautions that the original copy is filled with mistakes of truth, yet demands its incentive as a firsthand record of those â€Å"terrible times.† Meredith takes note of that the composition, composed by Avis Everhard, can't be viewed as goal since she is expounding on her own better half and was herself excessively near the occasions to have objectivity. In the Everhard Manuscript appropriate, Avis depicts meeting her future spouse, communist extremist Ernest Everhard. She discovers him inadequately prepared, bombastic, and bothering. Ernest contends that the American arrangement of financial matters depends on the maltreatment and poor treatment (at the end of the day, the abuse) of work, and that the common laborers who prop everything up endure appallingly. Avis at first doesn't concur, however later she leads her own examination of Ernest’s guarantees and is stunned to find sheâ agrees with his appraisal. As Avis turns out to be near Ernest, her dad and a family companion (Dr. John Cunningham and Bishop Moorehouse) additionally start to concur with his thoughts. Every one of the four key characters start to work for the communist causes. Accordingly, the oligarchs who own and run the nation under the pretense of free enterprise and majority rules system move to demolish them all. Dr. Cunningham loses his showing employment and his home. Priest Moorehouse is seen as clinically crazy and is focused on a shelter. Ernest wins political race as a Representative in Congress, yet is confined as a schemer in a fear based oppressor plot and is sent to jail, alongside Avis. Avis is discharged a few months after the fact, trailed by Ernest. The two escape into covering up and start plotting an insurgency. Before move can be made, the legislature and oligarchs-which Ernest by and large calls The Iron Heel-structure a private armed force, legitimized by the feeble government. This private armed force gets under way a bogus banner mob in Chicago. The private armed force, called the Mercenaries, fiercely pulverizes the mob, executing numerous and utilizing ruthless strategies. Priest Moorehouse, got away from imprisonment, is slaughtered in the mob. Toward the finish of the novel, Avis expounds hopefully on the designs for a second uprising that Ernest is sure will succeed. In any case, as the peruser knows from Meredith’s forward, this subsequent uprising will come up short, and The Iron Heel will lead the nation for a considerable length of time until the last upheaval that shapes the Brotherhood of Man. The composition closes out of nowhere, and Meredith clarifies that Avis Everhard shrouded the book since she realized she was going to be captured. Significant Characters Anthony Meredith. A student of history from the far future, perusing and making notes on the purported Everhard Manuscript. He is deigning and petty towards Avis and regularly amends her; be that as it may, his comments uncover his constrained comprehension of the mid 20thâ century period that he examines. The readerâ gets to know Meredith basically through his marginalia, which adds detail and setting to the novel. Avis Everhard. Bornâ into riches, Avis is at first pretentious of the predicament of the common laborers. Through the span of her composition, be that as it may, she considers her to be self as guileless and silly, and she turns into a wild advocate of upset. There is proof that Avis isn't altogether dependable and that her center mentalities have not so much transformed; she frequently utilizes rude language to portray the regular workers even as she is communicating in the language of transformation. Ernest Everhard. An energetic devotee to communism, Ernest is demonstrated to be insightful, truly amazing, and a fearless open speaker. Meredith infers that Ernest Everhard was just one of many key individuals in the beginning of the unrest, proposing that Avis mayâ be romanticizing Ernest all through her original copy. Most pundits trust Ernest speaks to London himself and his center convictions. Dr. John Cunningham. Avis’ father, a commended scholarly and researcher. He is at first a supporter of business as usual, however gradually becomes persuaded of Ernest’s cause. He loses his status in the public eye thus and later vanishes; Avis suspects he is captured by the administration. Religious administrator Moorehouse. A priest who experiences a comparative change in viewsâ as Dr. Cunningham, in the end giving his life in the push to oppose the theocracy. Abstract Style The Iron Heel is a work of tragic fiction. Tragic fictionâ presents a universe that is at chances with the author’s convictions and mentalities; for this situation, the tragic angle originates from a world run by entrepreneur oligarchs who misuse the average workers, misuse poor people, and savagely pulverize pundits. The epic is additionally viewed as a work of delicate sci-fi, in light of the fact that in spite of the fact that it makes no notice of cutting edge innovation, it is revolved around a setting 700 years in front of the date of its sythesis. London utilized a progression of settled perspectives in the novel, each with an alternate degree ofâ reliability. On a superficial level is the casing story of Dr. Meredith, who composes from the future and analyzes a work of authentic significance. He introduces himself as a confided in power, yet a portion of his discourse incorporates genuine mistakes about twentieth century history that would be evident to the peruser, which sabotages his unwavering quality. The following perspective is that of Avis Everhard, the storyteller of the composition that makes up the greater part of the content of the novel. Her unwavering quality comes into question when she infers that her announcements about her significant other are emotional, just as when she offers apparently derisive remarks about the political reason she affirms to help. At long last, the point of view of Ernest Everhard is given when his discourses are remembered for the content. These addresses appear to be solid because of their in exactly the same words nature, however Avis shakiness makes the peruser less certain.â London likewise utilizes a method known as a bogus report: aâ fictional work that is introduced to the peruser as a verifiable one. This arrogance permits London to add unpredictability to a novel that may some way or another be a clear political tract. The Iron Heelâ contains two entwined, multilayered bogus documents (Avis’ original copy and Meredith’s sparkle on that composition). This mix a mind boggling puzzle concerning whose point of view is nearest to reality. Jack London was charged a few times through the span of his profession with copyright infringement. Section 7 of The Iron Heel, The Bishop’s Vision, is a paper composed by Frank Harris. London didn't deny that heâ copied the discourse verbatim, yet he asserted that he trusted it was a discourse conveyed by a genuine religious administrator. Key Quotes â€Å"It is far simpler to see courageous men kick the bucket than to hear a weakling ask for life.† - Avis Everhardâ€Å"No man can be mentally offended. Affront, in its very nature, is emotional.† - Ernest Everhardâ€Å"Times have changed since Christs day. A rich man to-day who gives all he has to the poor is insane. There is no conversation. Society has spoken.† - Ernest Everhard Iron Heel Fast Facts Title: Iron HeelAuthor: Jack LondonDate Published: 1908Publisher: MacmillanLiterary Genre: Dystopian Science FictionLanguage: EnglishThemes: Socialism and social revolution.Characters: Anthony Meredith, Avis Everhard, Ernest Everhard, John Cunningham, Bishop Moorehouse.

Monday, August 17, 2020


Just Because It’s 2/29 FOUR bloggers blogged today, and only Snively mentioned this fact: TODAY IS LEAP DAY! Leap Day, Im sure you already know, comes from the fact that the earths revolution around the Sun is not perfectly 365 days. So, every 4 years (or, in the case of years that satisfy yr# mod 100 = 0, yr# mod 400 = 0 must also be true), we get one of these odd days. Anyhow, I just wanted to point out and celebrate the 5th Leap Day in my life. Going wayy back (1988) I was born on a leap year, but I guess it doesnt count because my birthday is in December, and I have already missed Leap Day. =( 1992, 1996 Probably playing in the sand pit somewhere and crying because I hated getting shots. 2000 Mm, 5th grade. Got pretty excited because I can now write the date as 2-0-0-0 rather than 1-9-9-9. Went to sleep at 9:30 every night because staying up past 10:00 was a crime in my young mind. 2004 Ah finally I remember something . It was freshman year of high school. I was obsessed with AMC 10 I spent 2 months preparing for it and was so depressed when I got 116, 4 points away from making AIME. Other than that, I remember the long, 7-hour road trip back to school because all the roads were clogged from Chinese New Year (the trip normally takes 3 hours). I didnt know what SATs were (honest! I didnt find out about SATs until the summer of freshman year, when I was in Mathcamp ah, the naivety of young minds). And now, 2008: 12:00 woo! midnight! STUDY STUDY STUDY STUDY 4:10 AM completes 14.01 (economics) pset. (ever want to know what a study room looks like at four in the morning?) 4:30 AM returns to dorm. 5:40 AM completes 5.111 (chemistry) pset. 6:15 AM welcomes in the sunrise of the leap day. One of my dormmates come up: Hey Chris, good morning! Youre up early today! ActuallyI havent gone to bed yet. =/ 1:10 PM wakes up, and thus begins my Leap Day (which wasnt eventful, unless you count the fact that I almost couldnt turn in my pset because it was overdue (it was due at 12:00) but everythings fine now) Four years from now, I (hopefully) wont even be at MIT anymore. Its kind of curious how my last Leap Day was my freshman year of high school, this Leap Day is my freshman year of college, and next Leap Day? Where will you be, when February 29 rolls around again? Keep 2/29 special. Until 2012! (and happy birthday to the Leaplings! Hope you had a good one. Youre my hero.)

Sunday, May 24, 2020

A Brief Note On Unemployment And Its Impact On The Economy

I. Introduction Unemployment is a global issue considering its overall impact on the economy. The main purpose of the analysis is to identify and analyze the causes and effects of unemployment in the global economy and provide possible solutions for it. By definition, unemployment occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work. It is often used as a measure of the health of the economy. The most common measure of unemployment is the unemployment rate. II. Key Terminology Unemployment Rate - It is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed persons by the number of people currently in the labor force. Global Economy – It refers to the economy of the world, comprising different economies of individual economies, with each economy related with the other in one way or another. III. Facts The following highlights the main facts related to unemployment and its impact on global economy: †¢ Increase in Population – This factor leads to higher unemployment rates, as the number of people who are looking for jobs is increasing, it becomes more difficult to accommodate jobs for all these number of workers. This results to increase in demand for work than the available occupations. This situation will continue as long as there is an existence of supply-demand gap for countries. China’s unemployment rate is 4.10 and has been stable over the years after the government implemented â€Å"one-child† policy. †¢ Fall inShow MoreRelatedA New Up And Coming Uk Government1674 Words   |  7 Pagesrise in unemployment and the lengthy period of recession. 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So inRead MoreFinancial Impact Of Microeconomics1276 Words   |  6 Pagescommittee will reconvene in December to decide whether there will be an increase in the rate.   Investors and currency speculators have a strong belief that this is when the rates will increase.   Other factors in the current economy include the strong job reports and the low unemployment rate.   Current chairperson of the Fed, Janet Yellen, mentioned that the inflation rate has been under the 2% target, which places some unease for current investors.   This low inflation rate also signals a higher chanceRead MoreKeynes Vs Hayek Essay804 Words   |  4 Pagesis quite complex. Both had influential roles in economic studies, emerging after World War II and during the Great Depression era (BBC). It’s i mportant to note that both of these economists had opposing views when it came to economic theories and policies. Briefly summed up, Keynes theories were in support for government involvement in the economy (EconedLink). In contrast, Hayek argued that the government should have a lesser role in economic decisions in order to achieve greater economic freedomRead MoreThe Financial Crisis And The G20 Essay1456 Words   |  6 Pagesfinancial market in the United States created an accelerated momentum that pushed the global economy towards a detrimental downward spiral during 2008. In response to the crisis, the world’s top economies created the G20 leaders’ forum in order to manage the financial downturn. Although the crisis was somewhat managed by the G20, the Great Recession left the world with a weak and stagnate global economy. 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Tsar refused to move with times; see changes and reforms. Close relations with Queen Victoria. Manipulated/Heavily influenced by wife Tsarina Alexandra. Austrian princess – granddaughter of Queen Victoria. Pressured Nicholas to preserve autocracy. Autocracy: Russian 1900’s – Tsar + family ruled completely – no democracy

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Differences in Babies Born in Africa and Those Born in Japan

Have you ever thought about how your life would be if you were born in other place in the world? Every country, every state and even every city has its own culture. The history of every country allows people to adopt some particular traditions and customs. People from an urban city cannot have the same customs from a person who lives in the rural area because most of the things are different like technology, transportation, environment, etc. Well lets see how a life of a baby in Africa between a baby in Japan are different. Babies in Africa versus babies in Japan have different life styles, but the one the concerns me the most is safety. When we think about safety, we think about parents taking care of babies at all times. Also we think about cribs, clean and secure houses, and regularly checkups with the doctor. The general idea is a risk less environment. These things fit to Japanese babies, but it does not apply for African babies. In Africa, babies are taken care by their mothers as well, but most of the time they are by themselves trying to get some attention. They do not have nice beds. They sleep, eat and play on the dirt ground, and they do not have clothes. Instead of having strong houses, Africans have weak, hand-made huts of sticks because it is the only material they can afford, and in these houses, predators can easily attack them. Safety is really necessary in all aspects, but it has not to be the same in all countries, that is why each person takes its ownShow MoreRelated1. I Chose Soccer As My Profession Because It Increases1205 Words   |  5 PagesIn cultures where babies and young children usually sleep close to their parents, for example, parents often feel that to put the child elsewhere. Child who wakes crying in the night no less than ignored. In the U.S. middle class families, babies are often put to bed in their own separate rooms. 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The inflation of people in the world is paralleled with the a growing number of those left to starve. The reason this is true is due to the fact that places were food is usually stable (Europe, North America, Japan, etc) are steadily decreasing in population. However, countries that are do not have a stable amount of food such as (Africa, the Caribbean, and parts of Asia) are sharply increasing in human population. Those countries have been havingRead MoreHigh Tech And Eco Friendly : Demand And Trends2053 Words   |  9 PagesThe use of consumer credits through credit cards is high. However, since the credit card crisis of the 2002, financial authorities more strictly monitor their consumers. Generational Differences Depression-era hardships created a generation that was less likely to use credit than the relatively reckless Baby Boomers who followed. Even without significant economic developments, the changing proportions of a population’s age groups can alter overall spending rates and habits, forcing retailersRead MoreIndia Is Developing Country Essay5119 Words   |  21 PagesWhat is the difference between a developed and developing country? Best Answer - Chosen by Asker A developing country is a nice way of saying a third world country; or a country that is still trying to create an advanced civilization. A developed country has an advanced civilization. Signs of an advanced country are the Gross National Product, the amount of poor, the infra structure of the country and so on. Most of Africa and South America is still developing, but there are major cities thatRead MoreValues, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction1941 Words   |  8 Pagessatisfaction shouldnt be totally surprising. Second, based on our knowledge of cognitive dissonance theory (discussed in this chapter), we might expect employees to resolve inconsistencies between dissatisfaction with their jobs and their staying with those jobs by not reporting the dissatisfaction. So these positive findings might be tainted by efforts to reduce dissonance (p. 61). tainted = belastet, „verdorbenâ€Å" 2 VALUES Values: Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existenceRead MoreComparison Between Japan and Russia13811 Words   |  56 PagesCultural differences A comparison of Russia and Japan Kristina Aksakova Exchange student Virrat, 2011 [pic][pic] Table of contents General information about Russia and Japan 4 Japan 4 Background 4 Tsunami Devastates Japan 5 History 6 Geographical facts 8 Demographical facts 9 Economic facts 11 FOREIGN RELATIONS 13 Governmental facts 15 Infrastructural facts 16 Russia 18 Background 18 History 18 Geographical facts

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Speaker for the Dead Free Essays

Prime Directive Response When dealing with foreign sentient species, it is crucial to maintain what is know as a prime directive. This is the notion that a species may explore distant planets, but must take certain precautions when dealing with other sentient species to prevent any change in their progression. In the novel Speaker for the Dead, the citizens of Lusitania go to great lengths to preserve their prime directive, but the indigenous species appear to benefit from their encounters with these humans, and begin to realize it themselves. We will write a custom essay sample on Speaker for the Dead or any similar topic only for you Order Now The natives of the planet Lusitania, known to the humans as â€Å"piggies†, have learned much from the humans in the brief time that they have lived together. The human languages, Stark and Portuguese, were necessary in order to be able to communicate with the piggies, but the piggies seem to be using it for more than just communication. Pages 142-143 show that the piggies can transition between Stark and portuguese as a sort of language game that they play with the humans. The piggies already know four different languages, and the addition of two more can help their society express themselves in more ways. Besides language, the mere fact of making contact with another sentient species shows the natives that they are not alone in the universe and that they may not be the strongest or the smartest. If they realize this, it may help them to unite as a planet-wide species faster than they normally would have without outside contact. By seeing that the humans are more technologically advanced, the piggies may also focus more on striving to create new technologies themselves. History has shown us that most inventions happen because they are necessary, and the addition of humans on Lusitania may increase the necessity of technological progression. At this point, the piggies are far from being capable of first contact and therefore cannot be contaminated by human society due to the Prime Directive. Their culture seems backwards to the humans, but that does not justify any interference, even if it would potentially benefit the piggies. The two species are simply too far apart in progression to be able to successfully interact with each other. The fact that two humans have already been killed, and brutally so (at least in human standards), reinforces this idea. The piggies’ culture is still hindered by radical traditions that the humans do not understand and most likely never will. By even being around the piggies, the humans are inserting themselves into the piggies’ rituals and culture. The piggies may eventually realize that their culture is backwards and may abandon such rituals earlier than they would have. Or perhaps, they may even adapt their culture to human standards. With this being said, it seems apparent that even minimal contact between the two species is having a subtle but profound effect on both societies. The cultural difference of the piggies is too vast to allow interactions with the humans if the Prime Directive is to be maintained. Already, as is seen on pages 144-145, one of the natives realized that the humans are using metals as a resource to accomplish greater tasks, such as flight. It may have taken decades for the piggies to have discovered metal as a useful resource on their own. The humans should have gone to far greater lengths to preserve the prime directive. No resource that is not ready available or attainable should even be encountered by the natives until they discover it for themselves. The notion of a prime directive may seem considerate towards other species, but in the case of the piggies it appears to be almost impossible. The attempts to learn more about the natives of Lusitania without contaminating their culture has resulted in failure after failure. Even if the humans were to leave immediately, the piggies have still learned permanent information that they would not have even theorized for years. Although it seems as though the prime directive has been compromised between the humans and piggies, the latter seems to still benefit greatly from the knowledge. They’ve learned new languages, discovered that traveling to distant planets is possible, and are now even considering searching for new materials to create better technology. Perhaps the humans should have taken more care to prevent technological contamination, but the colonization of Lusitania by humans has led to an inevitable progression of the native culture. How to cite Speaker for the Dead, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

New Light On The Olmec Essay Example For Students

New Light On The Olmec Essay The Olmec were Mesoamericas first civilization. They were locatedin Laguna de los Cerros, tres Zapotes, San Lorenzo, La Venta, and theTuxtla Mountains, in Mexico. The purpose of this report is to show howthe Olmec lived, their beliefs, and their spectacular art. The Olmec were a mother culture to later civilizations. The cultureof the Olmec started in Mexicos Gulf Coast between 1200 and 1400 B.C ,approximately between the Trojan war, and the golden age of Athens, andended about 3000 years ago. The Olmec were among the first Americans todesign ritual centres and raise earthen pyramids. On the pyramids therewere statues which were strategically placed as a shrine. As the Olmecculture gradually developed some Olmec villages grew strong andpowerful, while others were less fortunate. The villages shared theirresources, such as rubber and basalt. The Olmec had different socialranks, from workers such as fishers, farmers, traders and specialistssuch as artisans and sculptors, to rulers. Rulers were individuals whohad the power to float basalt down the river and to commission colossalstatues and other public work. The Olmec farmed and ate corn. They alsoate shellfish, fish, turtles, beans, deer, and dog. Perhaps the mostspectacular trait of the Olme c were that they used hieroglyphs. Theyused hieroglyphs to record dates, events, and to tell stories. Althoughthe Olmec were hard workers they still had time for a ceremonial ballgame. The Olmec had many beliefs. Among these beliefs were chanequeswhich were dwarf trixters who lived in water falls. They also had theirown beliefs in cosmology. The Olmec had natural shrines devoted to thehill on which the shrine was located and the water. The Olmec werebelieved to have a corn god. Jaguars were also worshipped religiously,perhaps because the jaguar was the most powerful predator. The Olmecbelieved that the jaguar brought rain. The men would sacrifice blood tothe jaguar, wear masks, dance, and crack whips to imitate the sound ofthunder. This ritual was done in May. The Olmec also made offerings ofjade figures to the jaguar. The Olmec had early achievements in art. Perhaps the mostincredible findings from the Olmec culture are the sculptures. The Olmecused wood, basalt and jade to make the statues. The wooden artifacts aresaid to be the oldest in Mesoamerica. The Olmec used basalt to makecolossal heads. The size of these heads ranged from 5 feet to 11 feettall. Some say the heads represent sacrificial offering. Others thinkthey portray the elite Olmec ancestors. These heads have also beeninterpreted as being warriors or ball players. Basalt was also used tocarve thrones. The Olmec used art to glorify rulers by making themmonuments of super natural creatures to portray them such as part human,part beast. The beast was usually the jaguar. It is believed that thesemonuments were annihilated after the death of the leader. The figurinesmade of jade were small and sexless. Some of the more elaborate statueswore extensive headdress with a long train, and rectangular chestplates, sat cross-legged, leaned forward and looked straight ahead. In conclusion the Olmec, Mesoamericas first civilization were amother culture to other civilizations. They had many beliefs, and hadearly achievements in elaborate art. The article, New light on theOlmec, was an interesting article but it was very repetitive. It isscarcely recommended.